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Epididymitis

(Epididymo-orchitis)

Definition

Acute epididymitis is an inflammation of the epididymis. This is a structure that surrounds and attaches to each testicle. It is shaped like a tube. The epididymis helps transport and store sperm cells.
Chronic epididymitis causes discomfort or pain in the epididymis. It can last for three months or longer. This type is less common.
The Epididymis
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Causes

This condition is most often caused by a bacterial infection. For example:
Other causes include:

Risk Factors

Only men can develop this condition. Risk factors include:
Children and newborns can get epididymitis. It is not necessary to have a urinary tract infection.

Symptoms

Symptoms usually develop within one day. These include:

Diagnosis

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
Images may be taken of your scrotum. This can be done with ultrasound.

Treatment

Treatment is essential to prevent the infection from worsening. Treatment may include:

Prevention

The following steps can help decrease your risk:

RESOURCES

National Kidney Foundation http://www.kidney.org

Urology Care Foundation http://www.urologyhealth.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES

Health Canada http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca

The Kidney Foundation of Canada http://www.kidney.ca

References

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Treatment Guidelines, 2010. MMWR. 2010;59(No. RR-12):1-110.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guide: 2006. MMWR. 2006;55. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/std/treatment/2006/rr5511.pdf. Accessed September 24, 2014.

Hori S, Sengupta A, et al. Long-term outcome of epididymectomy for the management of chronic epididymal pain. J Urol. 2009 Oct;182(4):1407-1412.

Santillanes G, Gausche-Hill M, et al. Are antibiotics necessary for pediatric epididymitis? Pediatr Emerg Care. 2011 Feb 19.

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